Job costing for construction
In construction, we all know that job costing can be a minefield. With the right resources, software and support, you will be on your way to more accurate costings and you'll save time and money in the long run.
In the field of construction, one of the most pressing issues is creating accurate job costings to avoid blow-outs, but estimates can be difficult. There are many variables from one job to the next and the process can be time-consuming and labour intensive.
There are a number of practical strategies that can help you achieve greater accuracy, along with some tools you may not have considered. Your business has unique needs, but a simple, easy-to-use job costing software can save you a major headache in the long run.
Job costing versus process costing
Construction and manufacturing projects are traditionally priced in one of two ways.
Process costing You identify the steps required to complete a job and assign an average cost to each one, based on past experience. Then you add the averages to produce an overall budget.
Job costing You look at the job in detail and break down the specific labour and materials requirements. After calculating these costs, you add a charge to cover your overheads.
Process costing works best in industries with uniform costs like some forms of manufacturing. Job costing is more rigorous, involves fewer assumptions and – when done right – gives you more certainty.
It’s particularly useful in construction, where there are so many variables from one job to the next. But it can be time-consuming and labour-intensive.
Breaking down job costing
Job costing only gives you a precise estimate if you’re precise with your inputs. You need to think the project through, double-check the drawings, and visit the worksite to figure out how the job will unfold. Then you separate the project into major cost centres:
Labour Start by working out how much it costs per day (or hour) to have your direct employees on the job. Multiply that rate by the time you expect the job to take. Identify where you’ll need subcontractors, then confirm their availability – you don’t want to be waiting on them. Have the contractors estimate the job but be aware they may not be as precise as you. It pays to do your own calculations based on their hourly rate. You might want to build in some contingency to cover the tricky tasks that always seem to come up.
Material Calculate a cost for direct materials like wood, steel and electrical wiring, then add indirect materials like fasteners and caulking. Make sure equipment hire is covered here too. You might also charge a margin on these materials to cover things like delivery and wastage.
Overheads You’ll need to charge an overhead to account for depreciation of equipment, and for other business expenses like office rental and administration. These costs don’t directly relate to the job so this step is an approximation rather than a calculation. Many builders work out the overhead by adding a percentage to each job – but each business is different. It’s best to have an accountant help you find out how you should treat overheads.
Doing job-costing calculations used to require hours on spreadsheets and there was a lot of room for error. Job costing software streamlines the process and automates the calculations to make everything easier and faster.
It allows you to:
Price jobs accurately By working out the specific costs for each job, you’ll have far more confidence in the final estimate.
Avoid customer conflict An accurate upfront estimate reduces the risk of a nasty surprise when your customer gets the final bill. And the happier the customer, the greater your chance of getting repeat work and referrals.
Submit a timely estimate Job costing used to take a lot longer than process costing. With job costing software, however, you just punch in the numbers – let the software do the maths – and your estimate is ready.
Calculate realistic profit margins Job costing software makes it easy to add your markup and calculate your margin – so you stay competitive but profitable.
Track progress and costs in real time As you work through the job, you can enter actual costs against estimated costs to see how the budget is looking. This will allow you to keep ahead of escalating costs and communicate with the client.
Get the security of accurate job costing
Avoiding cost overruns in construction isn’t easy. Job costing software gives you the best chance at estimating the right price upfront. It’ll also help you track budget as the project unfolds, so you can address issues quickly.
Cloud applications like Xero and WorkflowMax will help you avoid risky assumptions and stay in control of your business’s profitability.
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